HTML Online Tutorial Contents

Following are the posts for HTML online Tutorial. To learn everything about HTML, just read these posts: HTML Online Tutorial HTML TAGS (2) HTML BASICS (3) HTML ELEMENTS (4) HTML ATTRIBUTES (5) More »


XHTML stands for Extensible Hypertext Markup Language. It is also known as XML (Extensible Markup Language). It is a markup language. In XHTML, there are no predefined tags. The user defines the More »


In this tutorial, you learned: HTML Introduction HTML Tags HTML Basics HTML Elements HTML Attributes HTML Paragraphs HTML Headings HTML Formats HTML Image HTML Links HTML Lists HTML Frames HTML Table After More »


HTML Tables are used to arrange data in web pages. HTML allows the use of tables by <table>…</table> tags. Each row in HTML table is recognized by <tr>…</tr> tag. In each row More »


Nested frames example: For the following example to work, there are two other simple HTML files : “HMTL11e1 frame a.html” and “HMTL11e1 frame b.html”. your browser will divide your screeub half. The More »


Tag Archives: HTML

Understand the CSS Syntax or Lexical Structure

Understand the CSS Syntax or Lexical Structure:

The lexical structure of CSS is the set of rules that explains how to write code or program in that language. This is also known as CSS syntax. You can use CSS to associate various rules to the elements which will appear on your website. These rules are responsible for the content of those elements which should be rendered. The CSS rule is basically composed of two parts:

Selector: It shows those element or elements on which declaration is applied. If this applies to more than one element then you can use coma to separate the list of elements. Or you can say that it is the name of HTML tag or element to be defined by user.

Declaration: By using declaration you can set how the elements should be styled which are mentioned in the selector.


td {width:25px;}

Here td is a selector and 25px is Declaration. The declaration has two parts which are usually separated by colon:

  1. Property
  2. Value

Selector {Property: Value}


It is the property of the selected elements which you want to declare. It is usually the attribute of the HTML tag.


It is the value of the property of the HTML element or tag.


H1 {color: maroon}

In the above example, “Title” is the HTML element name, “Color” is the attribute to be changed and “maroon” is the value of the attribute.

It is possible to modify one or two tags at the same time e.g.

H1, H2 {color: yellow}

In the above example, you can change the color of any headings of size H1 and H2 to yellow.

H1,H3 { color: green; font-family: Comic Sans M}

In this example, you can change more than one property for more than one elements. In the above example, the color and font of both H1 and H3 heading will be changed to green and Comic Sans M respectively.

It is also possible to modify one or two attributes of the same tag at the same time e.g.

H1 {color: maroon; font-family: Comic Sans M}

The way in which element or elements can carry the attributes and how the attributes control the property of the element is similar to HTML or XHTML.

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Understand the basics of JavaScript Lexical Structure or Syntax

Understand the basics of JavaScript Lexical Structure or Syntax

Today, you will learn in detail about the lexical structure of JavaScript. The lexical structure of any programming language means the set of rules that explains how to write code or program in that language. Therefore, for new programmers like you, learning the lexical structure of any programming language is the first step. Moreover, the Lexical structure is also known as Syntax of the programming language. Therefore, for simplicity we will use the term SYNTAX throughout the tutorial. The first thing you need to know is a character set.

JavaScript Character set:

The Unicode character set is used to write JavaScript programs. You should know that Unicode supports every programming language on this earth & it is a superset of ASCII and Latin 1.

JavaScript Case Sensitivity:

This language is a case sensitive. In other words, the JavaScript variables Moon, MOON, MoOn etc are all considered as a different variables and can have distinct values stored in them. Same is the case with functions names, keywords and identifiers as well.

Confusion between JavaScript, XHTML and HTML case sensitivity:

You should notice that the XHTML is case sensitive, But HTML is not case sensitive. Therefore, for you being a new programmer it can be a little bit confusing. Another reason for the confusion is that the HTML has close association with the client side JavaScript. But with practice you will understand. For example there are various client side JavaScript objects and HTML Tags have the same name. i.e. these names can be written in any case in HTML, but in JavaScript they have to be case sensitive.

For better understanding consider the event handler named onclick of HMTL. This is sometimes written as OnClick or onclick in HTML because it is case insensitive. But this same attribute must be written only as onclick in JavaScript.

Line Breaks and White spaces in JavaScript:

The line breaks means that the command that terminates the line in a code and moves to the start of next line. The white spaces are basically the blank spaces in between the words. All those spaces that appear between the tokens in the programs are ignored by JavaScript. It mostly ignores the line breaks in the code as well.  This is useful for you, because you can easily create a neat and consistent piece of code by formatting and indenting freely. In other words, you can use as many spaces and free lines you want in your code to make it readable.

JavaScript usually considers following as a whitespace characters:

  • Tab
  • vertical tab
  • form feed
  • non breaking space
  • byte order mark
  • any character in Unicode  group

JavaScript considers following as a Line breaks or terminators:

  • line feed
  • carriage return
  • line separator
  • paragraph separator

You need to remember that the line feed and carriage return are considered as a single line terminator

Format Control Characters:

These characters controls the presentation of the text they occur in. For example, RIGHT-TO-LEFT MARK &  LEFT-T-RIGHT MARK. These characters are significant for the presentation of non-English languages. You should remember that they are allowed in comments, expression literals and string literals. But they are not allowed in identifiers like name of variables etc. Except, the ZERO WIDTH JOINER & ZERO WIDTH NON JOINER are allowed in identifiers but not in the first character place.

So, in this post you learned about Case Sensitivity, white spaces, line breaks and format characters of JavaScript. To Learn more about JavaScript subscribe to our RSS feed and newsletter and you will be expert in JavaScript in no time.

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Learn about PHP and MySQL

Learn about PHP and MySQL relationship

PHP Introduction

PHP is basically a language which creates HTML content. Before starting this tutorial, you should have basic understanding of: HTML / XHTML, JavaScript. You can find the tutorial for HMTL here:

HTML online Tutorial Contents


We recommend that the reader should go through these tutorials first before PHP tutorial.

PHP stands for Hypertext Preprocessor. PHP can be used in three ways: Server side Scripting, Command Line scripting and Client-side GUI (Graphic User Interface) application. There are many databases which are supported by PHP e.g. MySQL, Solid, Informix , Sybase etc.). PHP is a free to download and use. Also, it is and open source software. PHP runs on various platforms like Windows, Unix and Linux etc. It runs efficiently on server side and is easy to learn. Following is the brief introduction of the ways in which PHP is used:

Server Side Scripting:

PHP is a server side scripting programming language like ASP. PHP is basically designed and best suited to create web content. PHP parser and a web server is used to generate the HTML. The web server is used to send the coded documents. PHP can also be used to generate the XHTML documents, graphics, animations, pdf files, etc.

Command Line Scripting:

The command line can be used to run PHP scripts like Perl, Unix Shell, or awk. These command line scripts can be used for various administration tasks of a system like log parsing or backup.

Client-Side GUI Application:

The cross platform GUI applications can be written by using PHP-GTK.

PHP File:

PHP files are capable of containing text, HTML, scripts and various tags etc. The extension of any PHP file is “.php”, “.php3” and “.phtml”. These files return to the internet browser as a plain HTML.

PHP and MySQL:

The database server is known as MySQL. It supports standard SQL. It is available freely to download and use. It is usually used for both small and large applications. It can compile various platforms.

If you need to develop a cross platform application i.e. develop it on Windows and serve on Linux then you can use PHP and MySQL together.

ASP online tutorial

ASP Server Side Scripting Online Tutorial Contents

Following is the ASP  Server Side Scripting Online Tutorial Contents:

ASP  Server Side Scripting
Learn about ASP Introduction in ASP tutorial (2)
Learn about Features of ASP, IIS and PWS (3)
Learn about Installation of IIS and PWS (4 ASP)
Learn about Installation of IIS on Windows Server 2003 and Testing your Web (5 ASP)
Learn about Basic ASP Syntax Rules (6 ASP)
Learn about Basic ASP Variables (7 ASP)
Learn about Basic ASP Procedures (8 ASP)
Learn about Basic ASP Forms and Inputs by User (9.1 ASP)
Learn about Basic ASP Forms and Inputs by User (9.2 ASP)
Learn about ASP Cookies (10 ASP)
Learn about ASP Session Objects (11.1 ASP)
Learn about ASP Session Objects (11.2 ASP)
Basics of Javascript


JAVASCRIPT is a scripting language. It is an easy programming language. It is used to add interactivity to HTML documents. It is usually embedded directly into HTML pages. It is highly useful scripting programming languages for web developers.


Following are advantages of JavaScript:

  • JavaScript is used to read and edit any HTML element.
  • JavaScript is very easy language. Almost every HTML designer can add JavaScript program in their website.
  • JavaScript can be used as an event handler in a website. Whenever any event occurs JavaScript snippet responds to that event the way user programmed it.
  • JavaScript can also include dynamic text into websites.
  • JavaScript can also be used to recognize the browser type and version of the user.

There is more information about JavaScript coming up on this site very soon.